By David Olajide
What is diabetes?
Diabetes occurs when insulin, (an hormone that convert sugar to glucose and vice versa) is not able to convert excess sugar in the blood stream to glucose. This causes the buildup of extra sugar in the blood stream.
Inability or failure to manage this condition can lead to serious conditions which can damage and hamper the functions of the body organs and tissues such as the nerves, eyes, kidneys and heart.
Causes of diabetes
When carbohydrate food is eaten (like bread and rice) it is digested into glucose, this glucose needs the help of insulin to get to its final destination like the body cells and tissues where it is used to release energy. Diabetes or high blood sugar occurs when your body either fail to make enough insulin or cannot effectively make use of the insulin produced.
Types of diabetes
- Type 1 diabetes (autoimmune diseases) : This is a condition in which the immune system attacks and destroys the cells from where insulin is produced in the pancreas. This type of diabetes occurs most frequently in children and adolescents. The body produces little or no insulin. This implies that you need daily insulin injection to regulate the blood glucose level.
2.Type 2 diabetes : This is very common in adults and 90% of all diabetes cases fall under this category. In this type of diabetes the body does not make effective use of insulin it produces.
3.Gestational diabetes (GDM) : This type of diabetes occurs during pregnancy and it usually goes away after childbirth, but the women affected by this type of diabetes as well as the child are at the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in future.
4.Type 4 diabetes ; This type of diabetes is caused by insulin resistance in older people. It is linked to old age but scientists already uncovered some causes.
Signs and symptoms of diabetes
Common symptoms of diabetes are;
- Unintentional weight loss
- Sudden changes in personality
- Increased thirst
- Blurry vision
- Misplacing things often
- Increased hunger
- Unhealed wounds or sores
- Frequent urination
- Memory loss
Risk factors of diabetes
- Family history (Genetics)
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Poor eating habit
- Certain chronic health conditions like Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and depression
- Injury to the paucreas (either by surgery, infection or tumor).
HOW TO PREVENT DIABETES
- Carefully monitor and regulate
your blood sugar
2 Monitor your cholesterol levels
- Cut down excess body weight
- Regularly exercise your body
- Eat healthy diets low in carbohydrates and saturated, high in protein and rich in fibre.
Treatment of diabetes
- Be physically active
- Take insulin injection everyday
- Oral medications could also be prescribed to one.
Oral medications or insulin injection helps in addressing the following in your body system in the treatment of diabetes;
- Lowers the release of glucose from the liver (more glucose is retained in the liver)
- Slows down or blocks the breakdown of carbohydrates I digestive system.
- Energises the paucreas to produce more insulin
- Helps your body to get rid of glucose through increased urine production
- Paucreas transplant is another advanced way of treating diabetes.