BY Ogunmolawa Omonike
Museums are not profit oriented institutions. They are repositories devoted to the procurement, care study and display of cultural artefacts and objects of lasting interest and value. They are opened to the public; promote cultural equity, offer equal access and contribute to human knowledge and education.
There are over 45 Museums serving the multicultural ethnic groups in Nigeria. In carrying out their mandate of collection, preservation, research, communication, exhibition and education, funds are required despite that they are not for profit institutions. Museum activities broadly involve collection of objects, advertisement, communication of information, staff development, maintenance of monuments and sites, research and publication, exhibition, procurement of land and construction of Museum buildings, sponsorship of cultural festivals and staff development etc. Funds are generated through the following means to fund the highlighted activities of the various museums in Nigeria.
Federal Government allocation: The Federal Government is the major source of revenue to museums since revenue generation is not the major purpose for museum establishment.
The ministry of culture, tourism and National Orientation submits in advance the proposal of its estimated revenue and expenditure for the next financial year in view of the residents articulated government objectives in term of economics, social and other welfare parameters.
This includes up Revenue i.e (Independent Revenue, Internally Generated Revenue, Aid, grants & external assistance) Expenditure i.e (personnel cost, overhead and capital, IGR,. Aid and Grant). After proper scrutiny by appropriate bodies, it becomes Appropriation Act from which fund is released to the museum.
Gate taking: These are gate fees collected as proceed from entrance to museum galleries, zoological garden and other special exhibitions. Though charge are very low since museum is not profit oriented and because the level of public awareness and acceptance about the museum is relatively low in Nigeria. Charging high fee may discourage the public from visiting the museum.
Admission fee: This is the type of fee that is peculiar to Institute of Archaeology and Museum Studies (IAMS), Jos where museum professional are trained. The trainees pay admission fees, school fees and others.
Sales from craft shops bookshops and craft village: Funds are generated from the sales of craft materials, postcards and replicas of objects which visitors buy from the craft shop as souvenirs, and books, exhibition guides, workbooks or bronchures and other books on Nigerian
Art Facility fee or rentage of premises and auditorium: Some museum visitors come to the museum basically to use the facilities within the museum which comprised of premises, auditorium, temporary exhibition halls etc.
Nigeria artists make use of the temporary exhibition halls to showcase their artworks for some periods, Halls are leased out to people for social events while museums with enough space within the premises lease out the space particularly during weekend .
Aids and grants from National and International Bodies: Aids and grants are given to museum for education , research, staff development , conservation of Nigeria objects , building or restoration of museum building , upgrading of museum storage facilities, digitalization, collection management , travel expenses for international of staff , exhibition, cultural preservation etc. Import and export permit fee duties.
Funds are also generated from the travel permit that is issued only by Nigerian museum for replicas, contemporary artworks or cultural materials before they can be taken outside the boarders of Nigeria. Such charges is based on the size and type of materials after adequate measurement and weighing of materials in the museum and a permit is given.
Fund raising: Museums can raise fund for specific programme like International Museum day, International Monument day, Mother’s Tongue day, painting competition for people with special needs etc. Money raised is used to sponsor the programme and the surplus used to fund other projects in the museum .
In most developed countries, revenue from Tourism has contributed immensely towards the development of the economy unlike in Nigeria where people’s dispensation and impression about museum is not encouraging thereby making revenue generation from gate fee to museum very low. Charging high fee in most Nigerian museums tend to discourage the few patronizing audience from visiting. Likewise, the introduction of Treasury Single Account (TSA) by Federal Government which requires all government ministries, departments and Agencies (MDA) to ensure all revenue receipts and payments are done through a Consolidated Revenue Account (CRA) at the Central Bank of Nigeria has reduced the source of funding of Nigerians museums
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