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Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer

Dr. Faozat Aragbaye
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into the cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, the body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin made.

Diabetes is due to one of two mechanisms:

  1. Inadequate production of insulin (which is made in pancreas and lowers blood glucose) or
  2. Inadequate sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin.

The two main types of diabetes correspond to these two mechanisms and are called insulin dependent (type 1) and non-insulin dependent (type 2). In type 1 diabetes, there is no insulin or not enough of it. In type 2 diabetes, there is generally enough insulin but the cells upon which it should act are not normally sensitive to its action.

Types of diabetes

There are few different types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
  • Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin and sugar builds up in the blood.
  • Prediabetes occurs when blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.


Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what these factors are is still unclear. Weight is not believed to be a factor.

Type 2 diabetes stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Overweight or obesity increases the risk.

 Gestational diabetes is the result of hormonal changes during pregnancy. The placenta produces hormones that make a pregnant woman’s cells less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This can cause high blood sugar during pregnancy.

Risk factors

Risk factors for diabetes depend on the on the type of diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes:

  • Being a child or teenager
  • Family history of a parent or sibling with the condition
  • Carrying genes linked to the disease

Type 2 diabetes:

  • Overweight or obesity
  • Age 45 or older
  • Family history
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • History of gestational diabetes
  • History of prediabetes
  • History of high blood pressure, high cholesterol or high triglycerides
  • Racial

Gestational diabetes:

  • Overweight
  • Over age of 25
  • Had gestational diabetes in the past pregnancy
  • Family history of type 2 diabetes
  • History of having given birth to a big baby
  • History of polycystic ovary syndrome


Diabetes symptoms are caused by the increase in blood


General symptoms

The general symptoms include:

  • Increased hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurry vision
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Sores that don’t heal

  Symptoms in men

In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction and poor muscle strength.

Symptom in women

Women with diabetes can also have symptoms such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections and dry itchy skin.


These blood tests are carried out to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:

  • The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test measures the blood sugar after 8hours fasting
  • The AIC test provide a snapshot of the blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months.

  Diagnosing gestational diabetes, the blood sugar estimation of the pregnant woman will be done between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy

  • During glucose challenge test, the blood sugar is checked an hour after drinking a sugary liquid
  • During the 3 hour glucose tolerance test, blood sugar is checked after overnight fasting and drinking a sugary liquid.


Type 1 diabetes

Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. It replaces the hormone the body is unable to produce.

Type 2 diabetes

Diet and exercise can help some people manage type 2 diabetes. If the lifestyle changes can’t help then there would be need to take medications that will lower the blood sugar.

Gestational diabetes

Dietary changes and exercise may not be able to bring down blood sugar in pregnancy if it’s high. Insulin therapy is given in gestational diabetes.


High blood sugar damages organs and tissues throughout the body. Complications associated with diabetes include:

  • heart disease, heart attack, and stroke
  • neuropathy
  • nephropathy
  • retinopathy, cataract and vision loss
  • hearing loss
  • foot damage such as infections and sores that don’t      heal
  • skin conditions such as bacterial and fungal infections
  • depression
  • dementia

Gestational diabetes

Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can lead to problems that affect both the mother and the baby. Complications affecting the baby include:

  • premature birth
  • higher than normal birth weight at birth
  • increased risk for type 2 diabetes later in life
  • low blood sugar
  • jaundice
  • stillbirth

The mother can develop complications such as high blood pressure in pregnancy or type 2 diabetes. The mother’s risk of gestational diabetes in future pregnancies also increases.


Type 1 diabetes isn’t preventable because it’s caused by a problem with immune system. Some causes of type 2 diabetes such as age or genes cant also be controlled either.

Many other diabetes risk factors are controllable. Most diabetes prevention strategies involve making adjustments to diet and fitness routine. These adjustments include:

  • Get at least 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise, such as walking or cycling
  • Cut saturated and trans fats, along with refined carbohydrates,
  • Eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
  • Eat smaller portions

Try to lose seven percent of the body weight.

The Hope Owena Press
The Hope Owena Presshttp://www.thehopenewspaper.com
Owena Press Limited (Publisher of The Hope Newspaper), Akure


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